Zoological Citation Sources --G

Gal.Ois. La Galerie des Oiseaux du cabinet d'histoire naturelle du jardin du roi. Vieillot, Louis Jean Pierre and Oud(t)art, Paul Louis 1820-6 Paris
  • See [Zimmer, 1926] and [Mathews, 1915, 1925] for discussions of the complex and confused publishing history.
  • This work represents an enormous bibliographic challenge. This challenge is increased by the confusing treatment afforded this work by G.M. Mathews in 1915. That treatment Mathews indicates was partial and incomplete; he re-summarized it with minimal added information in 1925.
  • The situation is, at least in part, as follows. Zimmer's summary indicates that the work was
    	planned to give colored figures of all the birds in the
    	galleries of the Paris Museum, accompanied by brief general accounts
    	of each.  Six livraisons were issued thus, with 24 plates by Oudart
    	and with anonymous text which is probably also by Oudart since the
    	dedication is signed by him.  This original matter forms the variously
    	paged text and the unnumbered plates at the close of Vol. II.  The
    	enormity of the project caused its abandonment and the substitution of
    	a more modest program, with the writing and the text assigned to
    	Vieillot, and livraisons 7-82 carried the work to completion.
  • Given that the work was issued in livraisons the problem devolves, in part, to determining which plates (and text) were contained in which livraisons, and then assigning dates to those livraisons.
  • Mathews has taken the most systematic approach to this problem, In the AustralAv.Rec. 1915 II(7):153-158 he publishes his results which he indicates are incomplete. He tells us that the data comes from the "Bibliothèque Française" and he indicates that this if from the "number for Sept 2, 1820". I am unable to find such an entity, but of interest, the Sept. 2, 1820 number of the Bibliographie de la France contains a discussion (p.472) of this work containing some of the details that Mathews includes; the dates of the livraisons and listing of the number of plates contained therein is not a part of this, nor could it be, given that in 1820 only the proposal of publication existed. After Mathews presentation (p.154) of details (that could have come from the Bibliographie de la France), Mathews indicates:
    	The succeeding dates and contents follow :—
    He appears to imply but does not explicitly state that the dates and contents that "follow" are from the "Bibliothèque Française", though this is clearly impossible. Examination of the Bibliographie de la France shows no such dates or listings of content which could not have possibly come from this publication (dated Sept. 2, 1820) which announes the plan of the work, and could hardly document occurances up to six years in the future.
  • In addition, Mathews evidently assumes, though he does not explicitly state, that the plates were issued serially in numerical order. If this assumption is not correct, Mathews' entire subsequent scheme collapses on itself, and Mathews provides no evidence for or against this (implicit) assumption. At this point it is worth noting that a bibliographer with even a small part of Mathews' experience would not expect the plates to have been consistently issued in strict numerical order, several hundred plates are involved and it was common for there to be irregular delays in the production of plates.
  • We have extremely strong theoretical grounds to believe that Mathews' assumption of numerically serial plate-production is more of a servant to convenience than to truth.
  • What evidence, if any, do we have regarding the actual contents (by plate number) of the individual livraisons? Certainly, the bound copies are no testament to what the contents of the individual livraisons were, and I have never seen any indication of anyone examining a copy with the original wrappers, or a copy unbound with the original livraisons.
  • The only evidence I know of that relates to this problem is in CW Richmond's unpublished notes on Dates of publication. There, Richmond has a number of cards including data of interest. He indicates that Livr.7 contains pll. 1,2, .. 4. (which fits with Mathews' scheme). He indicates that Livr. 8 contains pl.25 "Kakatoe rose". Mathews' approach would indicate that this livraison should include pll. 5,6,7,8; so if Richmond's data are correct the sequence was well out of register already in the second of the livraisons in which sequence should have been maintained. (It must be remembered that livraisons 1-6 do not enter into this sequence). Richmond indicates that Temminck "Pl.Col. refers to it in his livr. 14, texte."
  • On these cards, which we presume are Richmond's working notes, he lists further plate contents of various livraisons (though it is usually unclear how he comes to know this). This listing shows.
  • So some plates fit Mathews' scheme, and some do not.
  • What to do?
  • The taxa I currently list to this source are:
    1. Prioniturus discurus (Vieillot) 1822 Gal.Ois. 1 p.7 pl.26
    2. Chelictinia riocourii (Vieillot) 1822 Gal.Ois. 1 p.43 pl.16
    3. Caprimulgus climacurus Vieillot 1824 Gal.Ois. 1 p.195 pl.122
    4. Alectrurus risora (Vieillot) 1824 Gal.Ois. 1 p.209 pl.131
    5. Patagona gigas (Vieillot) 1824 Gal.Ois. 1 p.296 pl.180
    6. Phasianus versicolor Vieillot 1825 Gal.Ois. 2 p.23 pl.205
    7. Haematopus ater Vieillot & Oudart 1825 Gal.Ois. 2 p.88 1 pl.230
    8. Ortyxelos Vieillot 1825 Gal.Ois. 2 p.91
    9. Myrmotherula guttata (Vieillot) 1825 Gal.Ois. 2 p.251 pl.155

    GameBirdsIndiaBurmahCeylon[Hume&Marshall] The Game Birds of India, Burmah, and Ceylon. Hume, Allan Octavian & Marshall, C.H.T. 3 vols. 1878-1880 Calcutta 8vo.
    GarciadeOrta Garcia de Orta Lisboa : A Junta, 1953-1971. Description 19 v. : ill. ; 26 cm. Four no. a year. Note Split into several subseries under the common title: Garcia de Orta.
    G.Arcad.Sci.Lett.Arti Giornale arcadico di scienze, lettre ed arti.[Rome] 1-212 Ja/Mr 1819-Mr/Ap 1868 121 vols., 1819-1850 {Mathews} vol. LII. part I p.1-77 pub 1831 vol. LII. part IV p.129-209 pub 1832
    GeeseEuropeAsia The Geese of Europe and Asia : being the description of most of the Old World species Alferaki, Sergei Nikolaevich 1905 London viii [i,] 198p : 25 pls. col., text ill ; 4 Appendix 1. Mr. G.F. Goebel on the Eggs of Russian geese 2. Extract from the "Diary of the Visit to Kolguev in 1902" of... S. A. Buturlin...Communicated by the author The above work is a translation of the author's "Gussi Rossii," published in Russia in 1904
    GelehrteAnz.Munchen Gelehrte Anzeigen, Akademie der wissenschaften, Munchen . 1835-60 1-50 superceded by Sitzungsberichte.
    Gemein.Handb.-undHilfsb. [The abbreviation follows the recommendation of Browning & Monroe Arch.Nat.Hist. 1991 18:385] Gemeinutziges Hand-und Hilfsbuch der Naturgeschichte, &c. Bd I. (all pub.) Gloger, Constantin Wilhelm Lambert 1841-42 pp. xxxiv,495 8vo Breslau Issued in 7 Hft. 1-5, pp. 1-400 appeared in 1841. Mathews states: "pt. VI. pp.410-480(?), towards the end of 1841, but date not certain; pt VII, pp.477-496 and pp.i-xxxiv,. including preface, dated Oct. 17th, 1841, and title page 1842, perhaps early in 1842, but it may have appeared in 1841 as cases where the title-page is dated ahead do occur in connection with German books, and even French, as Cuvier." Edward Dickinson kindly provided a copy of the Title page and facing sheet from the copy at the Mus.Hist.Nat. London. C. Davies Sherborn has a handwritten note detailing: Pt.1 pp. 1-80 1841 [APP: dated prior to May 1841 by Thomas 1895 Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist.(6) 15:189] Pt.2 pp. 81-160 1841 [APP: dated prior to May 1841 by Thomas 1895 Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist.(6) 15:189] Pt.3 pp.161-240 1841 Pt.4 pp.241-320 1841 Pt.5 pp.321-400 1841 Pt.6 pp.401-496 I-XXXXLV 1842 [APP: note that Sherborn does not refer to Pt.7, thus he did not count the parts correctly, or did not understand the structure of the publication.] Sherborn's note generally agrees with the representation given by Zimmer, who in addition discusses at length the issues that relate to Pt.7 which was unacknowledged by sherborn. CWR's unpublished notes on dates of publication address this issue. His listing of the parts is: "Publ. in 7 parts I 1841 pp. 1-80 II 1841 pp. 81-160 III 1841 pp.161-240 IV 1841 pp.241-320 V 1841 pp.321-400 VI 1841 pp.401-477? VII 1842 pp.477? - (illegible) & also intro. pp., title p. etc. The point of interest turns on the date for Heft 6. CWR's unpublished notes on dates of publication address this issue. One of his relevant notes states: "I know that Pts. I-V were publ. in 1841, as they are so cited in Isis. Each one had 80 pages. As the last (VII) part contained the introd. matter, + this is dated by Gloger in Oct., 1841, it follows that Pt.6 must have appeared before Oct., 1841." My interpretation is that historically it is likely that Heft VI was written before Oct. 1841, and thus it is likely that it was published before 1842. However, unlike Hefte I-V, we do not have corroborating evidence that it was published in 1841, so absent other indications, the ICZN Code 1999 Art. 21.2 indicates that for nomenclatural reasons 1842 (the specified date) should be held to be the date of publication. The logic here is a little problematic: ICZN "21.2 Date specified. the date of publication specified in a work is to be adopted as correct in the absenced of evidence to the contrary." In this case, the date specified (1842) is "found to be incorrect" (language from 21.4) for Hefte I-V. based on the reviews in Isis and the dates for those Hefte is thus 1841. These reviews do not cover Heft VI, so the question becomes is there "evidence to the contrary" for the publication of Heft VI in 1842. CWR felt that there was such evidence, but it may be regarded as probabalistic and circumstantial. The Code appears to me to be quite casual and loose in it's progression of date requirements. In 21.2 is indicates that the specified date is to be accepted "in the abscence of evidence to the contrary", however no instructions are given as to how to evaluate or deal with "evidence to the contrary". It's next instruction in this matter deals with what to do if the date "is found to be incorrect." While one can easily imagine (as in this instance) a situation where there may be "evidence to the contrary" but not proof that the specified date is incorrect. This gives the clearly incorrect impression, that those composing the code had either slight and casual acquaintance with matters of bibliographic history, an unistructed idea of legal logic, or both. My experience suggests that a frequent occurance is "evidence to the contrary" for a specified date without the specified date having been "found to be incorrect." This kind of logical "never never land" is, of course, the main reason for computer programs to fail. References of note here are:
    1. Thomas, O., 1895. "An analysis of the mammalian generic names given in Dr. C.W.L. Gloger's 'Naturgesischichte' (1841)." Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6)16:189-193.
    2. Isis 1842 (Heft v, p.379).
    As Thomas says the anonymous 'review' in 1842 seems to date Heft 3-5 (not 3-4 as given by Thomas) from 1841.
    Gemein.Naturgesch.Deutschland Gemeinutzige Naturgeschichte Deutschland nach allen drey Reichen. Bechstein, Johann Matthias Leipzig 4 vols 8vo Birds Bd. II - IV 1791,1793,1795. [Note: RI card for Numenius variabilis appears to indicate that IV Abth.1 was published in 1809, and further that it "antedates Vol. I of the Ann.Wetter.Gesell."]
    Gemein.Naturgesch.Deutschlanded.2 Gemeinutzige Naturgeschichte Deutschland nach allen drey Reichen. Bechstein, Johann Matthias ed.2 4 vols 8vo Leipzig Birds Bd. II - IV 1804,1806,1808.
    Gemein.Naturgesch.Thier. Gemeinnüzzige Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs, darinn die merkwürdigsten und nüzlichsten Thiere in systematischer Ordnung beschrieben und alle Geschlechter in Abbildungen nach der Natur vorgestellet werden. Borowski, Georg Heinrich Berlin; Stralsund 10 vols 21 cm Mammals Bd. I - II 1780,1781.
    Gen.Av.[Wytsman] Genera Avium Wytsman, Philogene Auguste Galilee 1905-14 Brussels 4to Genera avium / edited by P. Wytsman; with contributions by: P.L. Sclater, R. Bowdler Sharpe, W.R. Ogilvie-Grant, E. Hartert, C.E. Hellmayr, T. Salvadori, & a. Publisher Brussels : V. Verteneuil & L. Desmet, 1905-1914. Description 26 pts. : 43 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 33 cm. Note: Cover titles. AMNH Library's copy bound in 2 v. Vol. 1 has pts. 1-15; v. 2, pts. 16-26. Note: Most authorities (including: Ornithological books at Yale, Claus Nissen (in his Schöne Vogelbücher) and Jean Anker (in his Bird book and bird art)) call for 44 plates, but the work is complete with 43, the original wrapper of Part 4 calling for 2 plates (cf. cover) but including only one. Bibliography/index Includes bibliographies. Contents: pt1. Passeres, fam. Eurylaemidae / by Ernst Hartert. pt2. Picariae, fam. Todidae / by P. Wytsman. pt3. Psittaci, fam. Stringopidae / by T. Salvadori. pt4. Psittaci, fam. Nestoridae / by T. Salvadori. pt5. Psittaci, fam. Cacatuidae / by T. Salvadori. pt6. Picariae, fam. Coliidae / by P.L. Sclater. pt7. Steganopodes, fam. Pelecanidae / by Alphonse Dubois. pt8. Picariae, fam. Musophagidae / by Alphonse Dubois. pt9. Passeres, fam. Pipridae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt10. Picariae, fam. Galbulidae / by P.L. Sclater. pt11. Psittaci, fam. Loriidae / by T. Salvadori. pt12. Psittaci, fam. Cyclopsittacidae / by T. Salvadori. pt13. Picariae, fam. Bucerotidae / by Alphonse Dubois. pt14. Picariae, fam. Meropidae / by Carl Parrot. pt15. Passeres, fam. Certhiidae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt16. Passeres, fam. Sittidae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt17. Passeres, fam. Regulidae / by C.E. Hellmayr pt18. Passeres, fam. Paridae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt19. Grues, fam. Gruidae / by L. Brasil. pt20. Casuarii, fam. Casuariidae / by L. Brasil. pt21. Grues, fam. Rhinochetidae / by L. Brasil. pt22. Apteryges, fam. Apterygidae / by L. Brasil. pt23. Passeres, fam. Chamaeidae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt24. Passeres, fam. Hyposittidae / by C.E. Hellmayr. pt25. Casuarii, fam. Dromaiidae / by L. Brasil. pt26. Grues, fam. Mesitidae / by L. Brasil.
    Gen.Birds The Genera of Birds : comprising their generic characters ... and an extensive list of species. Gray, GR [1808-72] Mitchell, DW, illustrator. 1844-49 London 3vols. 4to Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans. An extremely complex publishing history, issued in 50 parts without respect to the final arrangement. The dates for the individual parts extend from May 22, 1844 to June 1849. What is known of the history is summarized in Zimmer.
    Gen.Hist.Birds A general history of birds. Latham, J. 1821-8 Winchester 10 vols 4to
    Gen.Hummingb. Genera of humming birds, being also, a complete monograph of these Birds. Boucard, Adolphe 1892-95 London 8vo pp. I-XIV, 1-412 Data on dates of publication are given by: Walters, M. 2001. "On the dates of publication of Boucard's Genera of Humming Birds". BBOC. 121 p.68. He gives Hartert's comments on the history as follows: "As the dates of publication Mr. Boucard gave on the final title page 1894-1895, on the second title page 1893-1895, but both statements are wrong! All the parts were issued and sent out with The Humming Bird".
  • Pp. 1-56 1892
  • Pp. 55-106 1893
  • Pp. 107-202 1894
  • Pp. 203-266 1895 March
  • Pp. 267-283[=282] 1895 June
  • Pp. 283-330 1895 June
  • Pp. 331-394 1895 (end of Aug. or early Sep.)
  • Pp. 395-402 (addenda) 1895 (Oct or later, but before Dec. 25).
    Gen.Syn.Birds A General Synopsis of Birds Latham, John 1781-85 London 3 Vol. 4to
    Gen.Syn.BirdsSuppl. A General Synopsis of Birds Supplement Latham, John 1787 London p. iii,298 4to [The listing from copac (http://www.copac.ak.uk/copac) is below. This appears to have volume 1 as 1787; volume two I infer to be Suppl. ind. orn.] Supplement to the General synopsis of birds Publisher: London : Printed for Leigh & Sotheby, 1787-1801 Physical Desc.: 2v : ill., plates ; 26 cm (4to) Notes: Title vignettes, coloured "Additional catalogue of authors": Supplement [1] p. [300] Title page of supp. II reads: Supplement II to the General synopsis of birds "Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiae" (lxxiv p. at end of Supplement II) has special t.p dated 1801
    Gen.Zool.[Shaw] General Zoology, or systematic natural history / by George Kearsley Shaw ; [and afterwards (Vol. IX-XIV) by J. F. Stephens], with plates from the first authorities and most select specimens engraved principally by Mr. Heath [and afterwards Mrs. Griffith]. (General IX-XIV, pt.1 Aves by J.F. Stephens 1815-26 Shaw, George, 1751-1813 Stephens, James Francis 1800-26 London 14 v. [in 28] : illust.(8) Date of vol. VIII pts 1 & 2 Taxa from this volume are dated variably from 1811 and from 1812. The Peters Checklist, for example, dates all the Kingfisher taxa (Peters CL 5) to 1811, but dates other taxa from vol.VIII pt.1 to 1812. H&M 3rd follows the Peters Checklist, without comment on the dates as far as I can see, but changes some dates from 1812 to 1811 in the Corrigenda. Sherborn in Index Animalium has a casual mixture of dates for Vol. VIII pt.1 -- mostly 1812 but a few to 1811. True resolution of the issue and resulting consistency does not seem to have been achieved by Sherborn. Mathews in his Bibliography of the Birds of Australia indicates (p.124) "Vol. VIII, title-page, pt.I., 1811; title-page, pt. II. 1812." Richmond's unpublished notes on Dates of Publication , say that Vol. VIII was 'To be publ. "in May, 1809" (See adv. in vol. VII, at back of "Directions for placing the plates in vol. VII part I") [But vol. 8, Pt I is dated 1811! [+1812 on engr. p.!]. ]' that Vol. VIII pt1 is dated 1811 on the engraved title page, and 1812 on the printed title page of pt2. The latter date (1812) is supported (as noted both by Zimmer and by Richmond) by an advertisement on in Vol. IX, pt1 that says Vol. VIII was published in 1812 (agreeing with the date on the engraved title page. [APP NOTE: In archival correspondence between CW Richmond, and Witmer Stone (1928.09.18) Richmond asks Stone to examine the set at the Academy with regards to the spelling of the name Ortyx temminkii (so spelled in the Div.Birds Copy, and the L. of C. copy). Notation at bottom of letter indicates Stone apparently confirms temminkii (no "c") in the Academy copy. CWR refers explicitly to his little pencil cross-mark in the margin (though Stone notes that this mark is not present in the Academy copy] [2011.12.14] Dickinson et al. "Priority!" p.147 discuss this work, and state "We [?=ECD] recommend using 1812 for all of vol.8". Part of the supporting argument given for this is that "Sherborn's entries in the Index Animalium for various names in Certhia ... date the new names from 1812." While it is true that Sherborn dates most of the new Certhia names to 1812 (25 of them actually), he does date Certhia purpuratus (p.5295 in my copy) to 1811. Sherborn dates 95 names in Gen.Zool. to 1812, and only 2 to 1811. My recommendation would be to regard this matter as unresolved, which is in accordance with Dickinson. The date 1812 looks very likely, but 1811 can not be fully excluded. Geobios
    Geogr.Comp.ListBirdsEur.N.Am. A geographical and comparative list of the birds of Europe and North America. Bonaparte, CLJL London 1838 pp.7+67
    Geogr.Distr.Charad. The Geographical Distribution of the Charadriidae, or the Plovers, Sandpipers, Snipes, and their allies. Seebohm, Henry [1832-1895] 1887 London & Manchester pp.xxix,524, 21 pls. col. 4to
    Geogr.GeologicalExplor.Surv.W.100Meridian Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian Vol. V Zoology
    Geogr.[Guthrie]ed.2(Am.) A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial Grammer; and present state of the several Kingdoms of the world. &c. Second American Edition Ord, George 1815 2 vols. 8vo Ornithology v. II p. 313-357
    Geogr.Mitt.[Petermann] Mittheilungen aus J. Perthes; geographischer Anstalt uber wichtige neue Erforschungen auf dem Gesammtgebiete von . . . A. Petermann, &c. 1855-78 Gotha 4to continued as Petermann's geographische Mitteilungen. Erganzungheft. 1- 1879-1938. Gotha, J. Peerthes [1860] -19. Petermann, August Heinrich, ed. [1822-1878]
    Geogr.Var.Waders Geographic variation in waders. Engelmoer, M. & Roselaar, C.S. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1998
    Gerfaut Gerfaut (Societe orntihologique du centre de la Belgique) Louvain 1, 1911 (Suspended Ag 1914-19)
    Getr.Abb.Naturhist.Gegenst. Getreue Abbildingen Naturhistoricher Gegenstænde in Hinsicht auf Bechsteins Kurzgefasste Gemennützige Naturgeschichte des In- und Auslandes für Eltern, Hofmeister, Jugendlehrer, Erzieher und Liebhaber der Naturgeschichte. Herausgegeben von J.M. Bechstein. Bechstein, Johann Mattheus [1757-1822] 1783-1809 80 Hefte. [Dr Eberhard May writes (2004.01.08) that the dates of publication for the single parts is: 1. Hundert 1793 [XII, 128 (2) S.] 2. Hundert 1796 [VI S. 7-114] 3. Hundert 1800 [IV S. 5-100] 4. Hundert 1802 [(2) S. 1-88] 5. Hundert 1804 [92 (4) S.] 6. Hundert 1805 [88 (4) 16 S.] 7. Hundert 1807 [92 (4) S.] 8. Hundert 1809 [88 (falsch paginiert) (4) S.] [title of parts varies)]] [bracketed data from Schlenker, R. "Bibliographie der deutschen vogelkunlichen Literature von 1480 bis 1850" Stuttgart, 2004. pp.16-17] See also Schlenker, R. (1994): "Johann Matthäus Bechstein (1757-1822) - contribution to a bibliography of his work" [in German]. Anzeiger des Vereins Thüringer Ornithologen 2:125-133.
    Glean.Sci. Gleanings in Science Vol I - III 1829-31 Calcutta 8vo [Continued as The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.]
    GoteborgsKungl.Vet.Vitterhets-Samh.Handl. Goteborgs K. Vetenskaps. och vitterhets samhalle. Nya handlingar 1-5 1808-22.
    Gott.Mag.Wiss. Gottinger Mag. Wiss. Gotting. Magz. [CWR] [ BMNH : many Gottingen listings Koenigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. == none include Mag. in title. ]
    GuideNat. Guide Du Natrualiste; revue bibliographique des sciences naturelles. 1879-85 Paris 1-7
    GussiRossi Gussii Rosii Alpheraky, 1904 See Geese of Euorpe and Asia.
  • Comments&Suggestions to Data Steward
    Alan P. Peterson, M.D.
    POB 1999
    Walla Walla, WA 99362-0999

    Last updated 2014.01.05