Zoological Citation Sources --S

S.Afr.AnimalLife South African animal life; results of the Lund University expedition in 1950-1951. Hanstrom, Brink, and Rudebeck, eds. (Res. Lund Univ. Exped. 1950-51) 1957 (for v.4, at least) Stockholm, Distributed by Swedish Natural Science Research Council. Vols. 1-8 published by Almqvist & Wiksell. Text mostly in English; some articles in French or German. Edited by Bertil Hanstrom, Per Brinck, [and] Gustaf Rudebeck. v. 1-15. (1955-1974.).
S.Afr.Comm.Advertiser South African Commercial Advertiser
S.Afr.Q.J. South African Quarterly Journal. Edited at the South African Institution. Cape Town 1-3 1829-35 First Series No. I Oct. 1829-Jan. 1830 No. II Jan. 1830-Apr. 1830 No. II Jan. 1830-Apr. 1830 No. III Apr. 1830-Jly 1830 No. IV Jly 1830-Sep. 1830 No. V Oct. 1831: "Published by George Grieg, Keizerstgracht; 1832" Second Series No.1 Oct. to Dec., 1833. Published in monthly parts. (i, ii, iii). No.2 Jan. to Mar., 1834. Part i., 1834, part. iii (err. pro ii), iii. No.3 Apr. to Jun. No.4 Jly to Sep.
S.Austral.Orn. South Australian Ornithologist 1 N 1914 -> Adelaide
SaggioStoriaNat.Chile Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile Molina, Giovanni Ignazio [1740-1829] 1782 p.367 Bologna
SarawakMus.J. Sarawak Museum Journal
Schrift.Ges.Nat.Freund.Berlin Schriften der Gesellschaft naturf. Freunde zu Berlin [Also as (Peters) Beob.Entdeck.Nat.Ges.FreundeBerlin Beobachtungen und entdeckungen aus der naturkende [of the] Gesellschaft naturforshender freunde, Berlin Schriften 1-11 1780-94 superseded by Naue schriften 1-4 1794-1803 superseded by its Magazin 1807-1818 ]
Bob Dowsett writes (2003.09.04) concerning this serial:
Following up Dr Hausinger's advice, I have visited what is a very 
user-friendly and valuable website. 
It is clear that the publication in which Isert published had a varied, 
if short, history, appearing in the Bielefeld index under three successive titles 
(n° 2 including Isert):

1:     Beschäftigungen der Berlinischen Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde 
        Hrsg.: F.H.W. Martini (1779: F.W. Otto), Berlin
        Bd.1. 1775 - 4. 1779 
2:     Schriften der Berlinischen Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde 
        Hrsg.: F.W. Otto, Berlin
        Bd. 1.1780-11.1793/94, Universalregister 
2003.09.06; 2006.09.08

Sci.Bull.BrooklynInst.ArtsSci. Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Scientific Bulletin. 1 1908 ->
Science Science
ScienceJ. Science Journal [College of Science, Sun Yatsen University, Canton]
Sciencepourtous La Science pour tous : sur la vulgarisation scientifique en France de 1850 a 1914 / dirige par Bruno Beguet. v 1-53 D 13 1855 - Mr 28 1909
Sci.Pub.ClevelandMus.Nat.Hist. Scientific Publications of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History 1 Jl 28 1928 ->
Sci.Rep.WhalesRes.Inst.Tokyo The Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute, Tokyo
Scott.Nat. The Scottish naturalist. Arbroath [etc.] T. Buncle & Co. [etc.] 240 no. ill. 23 cm. No.1 (Jan. 1912)-240 (Dec. 1939); v.60 (1948)-71 (1964) Title varies slightly. "This volume (60) is consecutive to that issued in 1939. From 1871-1891 eleven volumes appeared, numbered in two seres; from 1892-1939 there were forty-eight unnumbered annual volumes. Volume numbers are now reinstated, this being the sixtieth reckoned from the start in 1871." cf. v. 60, 1948.
Senckenberg. Senckenbergiana 1-34 1918-1954 Frankfurt a.Main
Senckenberg.Biol. Senckenbergiana biologica. v. 35- 1954- Frankfurt am Main. Supersedes in part: Senckenbergiana 1918-54
Sibr.Reise CWR gives a Middendorf, Alexander Theodor von entry for "Sibr.Reise. 1851 II, 2 1851 p.195 pl.XVIII I assume is(Middendorff) 1853 ReiseNordOst.Siber. 2 pt2 p.195 pl.16 fig.7,8 [NUC has a Middendorff entry: "Chant yakoute (extrait du Voyage en Sibirie) (Siberische Reise, t. IV) Dernier livraison du dr. A. von Middendorff, St. -Petersbourg, 1875) [Geneve, J. Georg, 187-]" This makes it sound like an entity with multiple ?thiel.
Singvogel Les Oiseaux Chanteurs. The Song-Birds. Die Singvogel als Fortsetzung der vollstondingsten Naturgeschichte und zugleich als Central-Atlas fur zoologische Garten und fur Thierfreunde. &c. Reichenbach, HGL 1862-3 8vo Dresden, Leipzig Pt1 pp. 1-43. pll.I-XV 1862 Pt2 pp.45-70. pll.XVI-XXXI 1862 Pt3 pp.71-90. pll.XXXII-L (and LXI "according to the context" (Zimmer) 1863 [Pagination and plate counts from Zimmer p.514; part dates from Richmond Index cards]
Sistemat.ZametkiPtit.Sever.Kavkaza Sistemat. Zametki Ptitzkah Kavkaza
Sitzungsberichte "Sitzungsb. no. 7, Ver. naturwiss. Nterh. Hamburg" [Peters 2:96] This citation seems to be taken from Cat.B.Br.Mus. 22:254 which reads: "Excalfactoria lepida, Hartl. Sitz. Ver. Hamb. vii. p.(1879)" [None of these seem right from AMNH: Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. General Collection; QH5.N33 A32 1980 Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg General Collection; QH5.N33 V42 1980 Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen V General Collection; QH5.N33 A31 1978 ]
Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Sitzungsberichte und Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft Isis in Dresden [ sometimes as Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden ] Dating note: Volume "for 1884" is dated inconsistently by most modern workers.The current approach to this problem appears to be to simply and unquestioningly use the dates published by others, and this seems to occur without knowledge of or concern for the obvious inconsistencies that thereby result. Peters Checklist dates taxa from Heft 1 of this volume to 1884 and 1885, and despite the obvious inconsistency implied thereby, these dates are faithfully reproduced by others. The Richmond Index, appears not to have been consulted by any of these workers, but it does give an indication that there may be a basis for the confusion and uncertainty. The taxa I have checked so far (2007.12.29) all show a date of "1884" with the added text "(July or later)". I interpret the imprint date to be "1884" (and probably "July 1884") 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p. 013 Spilornis cheela asturinus Meyer,AB H&M:103 1884 -> Corr7 P 1(2):314 1884 (!) Stresemann & Amadon CWR 1884 "(July or later)" [Notes: 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p.015 Geoffroyus geoffroyi timorlaoensis Meyer,AB H&M 191 1884 -> Corr7 P 3:234 1884 Peters CWR 1884 "(July or later)" 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p.027 Gerygone dorsalis fulvescens Meyer,AB H&M:447 1885 P 11:447 CWR 1884 "(July or later)" 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p.030 Artamus leucoryn musschenbroeki Meyer,AB H&M:464 1884 P 15:162 1884 Mayr CWR 1884 "(July or later)" 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p.036 Pachycephala macrorhyncha sharpei Meyer,AB H&M:476 1885 P 12:20 "1885 ... 1884" Mayr CWR 1884 "(July or later)" 1884 Sitz.Abh.Naturwiss.Ges.IsisDresden Heft1 p.041 Philemon citreogularis kisserensis Meyer,AB H&M:436 1885 P 12:406 "1885 ... 1884" Salomonsen ]
Sitz.Allg.Deutsch.Orn.Ges.Berlin Sitzungsberichte der Allgemeinen Deutschen Ornithologen Gesellschaft zu Berlin (Minutes of the General/National German Ornithologists' Union, Berlin).
Sitz.Ges.Nat.FreundeBerlin Sitzungsberichte der Gesellshaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin
Sitz.K.Akad.Wiss.Wien Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien Sitzungsb. Math.-Naturw. Kl. Acad. Wiss.Wien, [CWR] [? year for vol 70 - 1874 or 1875 ]
  • The various volumes of Peters Checklist treat the date of vol. 70 inconsistently, with some taxa treated as published in 1874, and some as published in 1875.
  • I have interpreted this to imply thata while the imprint date is 1874, that some evidence was developed argueing that the publication was delayed until 1875. These may be somewhat shakey grounds, as the authors who treat the taxa as published in 1875, present no evidence or support for that date.
  • The taxa currently (2004.08.21) I list from Sitz.K.Akad.Wiss.Wien vol. 70 are all A.B. Meyer taxa and are: Additional information is provided by Anita Garnauf which both suggests some probabilities and also the complexity of the situation. Most important it seems evident that the material was initially printed as pre-prints before being included in the published journal. Her text (2005.01.07) reads:
    Every month (begin or in the middle of the months) the Acadamy had their
    meetings, where they decided to accept a manuscript or not. Usually a few
    weeks later these ms were printed (=praeprint) and send out to other
    institutions, the authors etc. The Academy was very fast in this procedure,
    only In December they were not able to print it before mid January. E.g.,
    Meyer1874: the meeting of the Academy was held at Dec 3, but the article +
    the contents was published at January 7 1875.
    She then lists examples (SB=Situngsberichte):
    SB mn 69, I (1874) 1, 74-90,   presented in the 6th   meeting 26.2.1874
    SB mn 69, I (1874) 3, 202-218, presented in the 9th   meeting 26.3.1874
    SB mn 69, I (1874) 4, 386-402, presented in the 10th  meeting 16.4.1874
    SB mn 69, I (1874) 5, 493-509, presented in the 13th  meeting 15.5.1874
    SB mn 70, I (1875) 6,  110-129, presented in the 16th meeting 18.6.1874
    SB mn 70, I (1875) 7,  200-238, presented in the 19th meeting 16.7.1874
    SB mn 70, I (1875) 10, 475-495, presented in the 27th meeting 3.12.1874 (Index)
    Sitz.Math.-Nat.Cl.kais.Akad.Wiss.Wien Sitzungsberichte Math. -Nat. Classe kais. Akad. Wissensch. [Wien]
    SketchMadeira A Sketch of Madeira, &c. Harcourt, Edward Vernon 1851 pp. x,176 5pl. 8vo London
    Skizz.Entwick.-Gesch.Europ.Thierw. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und Naturliches System der Europaischen Thierwelt Kaup, JJ 1829 8vo pp.xii,203 Darmstadt & Leipzig
    Skriv.Naturhist.-Selsk.Kjobenhavn Skrivter Naturhist.-Selskabet Kjobenhavn
    Smiths.Contrib.Paleobiology Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
    Smiths.Contrib.Zoology Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
    Smiths.Misc.Coll. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 1862-> Washington, D.C.
    Solenodon Solenodon : revista cubana de taxonomía zoológica. Havana V1 (2001)
    SouthwesternNaturalist v.1 1956 -> Lubbock, Texas
    Spic.Zool. Spicilegia zoologica quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus: descristionibus atque commentariis illustrantur. Pallas, Peter Simon 1767-1780 4to Berlin 14 fascicles.
    Spic.Zool.[Gray,JE] Spicilegia zoologica : original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals. Gray, John Edward 1828 29 cm London pp.8
    SpisPtakowKrol.Warsz. Spis Ptakow w gabinecie Zoologicznym Krolewsko Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu znayduiacych sie a podlung naynowszego systemu ustawionych przez F. P. Rawicza jarockiego, &c. pp.[viii], 69 [1] 1819 8vo Warsaw
    SpisokRaspred.Ptits.Russ.Altaia Spisok i raspredelenie ptits Russkogo Altaia i blizhaishikh chastei Severo-Zapadnoi Mongolii : s opisaniem novykh ili maloizvestnykh form = List and distribution of birds of the Russian Altai and nearest parts of NW Mongolia : with a description of new or imperfectly known forms P. P. Sushkin. Leningrad : Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1925. Sushkin, Petr Petrovich, 1868-1928.
    SpoliaZeylanica Spolia zeylanica. Publisher:(Colombo : H.C. Cottle, Government Printer) 1-38 1903-1984 QH183.5.S7 Description v. : ill. ; 24 cm. Coverage Vol.1, pt.1 (Apr. 1903)- Each pt. has also a distinctive title. Vol.1-12 also called pt.1-48. Issued 1903-19 by the Colombo Museum; 19 -19 by the National Museums of Ceylon; 19 - by the National Museums of Sri Lanka. Note: Vol.13-22, pt.1, issued as Ceylon journal of science. Section B, Zoology, which continues as an independent publication, v.23-25.
    StandardNat.Hist.[Kingsley] The Standard Natural History 6 vols. Boston
    Steenstrupia Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, 1970 Vol. 1 no.1 Nov. 2, 1970 Frequency varies
    StoryRearColumn[Jameson] The story of the rear column of the Emin Pasha relief expedition, by the late James S. Jameson ... ed. by Mrs. James S. Jameson; illus. by C. Whymper from the authors' original sketches, with new map and facsimile letter from Tippu Tib. Natural history appendix: Birds by R. R. Bowdler Sharpe, F.Z.S. Coleoptera by H.W Bates, F.R.S. Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera and Heterocera by Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S. H. Druce, F.L.S. New York, 1891 [Interestingly, it has been suggested that James Sligo Jameson was the model for Joseph Conrad's character "Mr Kurtz" in "Heart of Darkness". This speculation is found in "The British Library writer's lives Joseph Conrad" by Chris Fletcher. The British Library. 1999. There (pp.60-61) Fletcher notes that Conrad referred to Mr Kurtz as "an emissary of pity, and science, and progress". When Conrad returned from his time as a river boat captain in the Congo, the press was full of accounts of the behaviour of members of H.M. Stanley's Pasha relief expedition. Jameson, as a member of the expedition "apparently paid six handkerchiefs for the privilege of watching and sketching a young girl sacrificed and eaten by cannibals." Conrad refers to Kurtz as "presid[ing] at certain midnight dances ending up with unspeakable rites, which ... were offered up to him - do you understand? - to Mr Kurtz himself." The possible parallel also seems interesting to me [APP] in that Mrs Jameson edited her husband's Story of the Rear Column (her husband who died on the expedition, as Kurtz also dies in Africa), and in Marlow's account in Heart of Darkness he confronts Kurtz's widow, but is unable to tell her of the behaviour of her late husband. These are clearly speculations, but the timing and the many parallels seem interesting.
    Str.Feath. Stray Feathers 1-12 N 1872-99 Calcutta 1. no.1 Nove. 1872 pp.[]-50. nos.2,3,4 Febr. 1873 pp.[51]-323. nos.5 July. 1873 pp.[324]-427. nos.6 Dece. 1873 pp.[428]-496. 2. no.1,2,3 Janu. 1874 pp.[1]-336. NOTE: Letter on p.336 dated 29 January 1874. note by CWR indicates this no. was published later than January. no.4,5 June 1874 pp.[337]-466. no.6 Octo. 1874 pp.[467]-536.
    Studies On The Fauna Of Curacao And Other Caribbean Islands Vols. 1-70 1948-1988
    Stutt.Beitr.Naturk. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde., Serie A, Biologie 1973 -> Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde
    SummaBrasil.Biol. Summa Brasilienses biologiae Rio de Janerio v 1 no.1 17 D 1945 - My 1948
    Suppl.BirdsAustr.[Matthews] Supplements to the birds of Australia. 1920-1925 London. 1920-1925 Suppl. 1 1923 iv + 116 Suppl. 2 1924 117 - 156 Suppl. 3 1925 vii-viii 157 - 244 Suppl. 4&5 Bibliography 1925 viii + 149
    Suppl.BirdsChileArgent.Boliv.Peru Supplement to the birds of Chile and adjacent regions of Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Johnson AW, and Millie G. Platt. Etable. Graficos, Buenos Aires 1972
    Suppl.Cat.BirdsIndia Jerdon, Thomas [Not listed in Cat.Libr.Br.Mus.(N.H.)] 1841
    Suppl.ind.orn. Supplementum indicis ornithologici sive systematis ornithologiae. Latham, John 1801(=1802) 4to pp. I-LXXIV London
    Surv.CoastsAustr.[King] Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia, performed between the years 1818 and 1822, / by Phillip P. King, with an appendix containing various subjects relating to hydrography and natural history. London, John Murray, 1827. 2 vol. London Philip Parker King ed. [Note: Mathews in his Bibliography of the Birds of Australia p.72 notes that despite the imprint date of 1827 for this work, it was reviewed in the May [1826] number of the Dublin Philosophical Magazine. Mathews dates the publication to April 15th, 1826, though it is not clear if that date comes from the D.P.M. review.
    Surv.W.PalestineFaunaFlora The Survey of Western Palestine: the Fauna and Flora of Palestine London, 1888, c1884. xxii, 455p. : 20 pls. col. ; quarto. [Note: Preface dated December 17, 1883. Title page is clearly dated 1885 at the foot. ]
    Sydney Mail A newspaper.
    Sylvan[Laurop&Fischer] Sylvan, ein Jahrbuch fur Forstmänner, Jäger und Jagdfreunde Laurop, CP & Fischer, VF 1818 Published from 1813 to 1822; Neue Folge 1823 -> 1827/28 (1828)
    Symb.Phys.Aves Symbolae Physicae, seu icones et descriptiones corporum naturalium novorum aut minus cognitorum quae ex itin eribus per Libyam Aegyptum Nubiam Dongolam Syrian Arabiam et Habessianiam publico institutis sumptu Friedrich Guilelmi Hemprich et christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg Medicinae et Chirurgiae Doctorum... Avium deca I Ehrenberg, CG 1828-45 folio Berlin Zimmer (from Cat Lib Br Mus (NH) ) says: sigs a & b and all plates pub. 1828 all others (sigs. c-gg) appeared in 1833 I interp. that all entries listed "fol." is equvalent to "sig." Bob Dowsett writes (2003.06.06): [Begin Dowswett 2003.06.06] 'You will be interested to know that the NHM at Tring has a set of all 20 plates, i.e. including those from the Decas secunda. Alison Harding has most kindly confirmed that they hold the following: "1) The first one has a title page which states it is 'Decas Prima' and someone has added in pen 'et unica!'. At the bottom of the title page in pen has been added 'Fol. a and b and all plates appeared in 1828, the rest in 1833'. (I do not know who wrote these annotations). This volume has plates 1 to 10 only. 2) The other copy has no title page but has a handwritten 'title' - 'Symbolae Physicae seu Icones et Descriptiones corporum Naturalium Novorum aut Minus Cognitorum quae ex itineribus per Libyam Aegyptium Nubiam, Dongalam, Syriam, Arabiam et Haberssiniam publicio instituto sumptu. Hemprich et Ehrenberg. Pars Zooligica I. Berolini ex Ifficina Academica 1828' It has all 20 plates" She gives me a list of plates XI-XX which corresponds exactly to that supplied by the bookseller. This is presumably where Sclater got his information from, and I am waiting to know whether there are also sets elsewhere (e.g. AMNH, Berlin or Stuttgart). If it is agreed (as I think is the case) that this work was indeed distributed (despite the booksellers' claim to the contrary) then we have earlier descriptions for two Afrotropical taxa: Centropus superciliosus (pl. XI) Estrilda rufibarba (pl. XIII). In neither case do the names change, but the authors become: Hemprich & Ehrenberg (1829) rather than Hemprich & Ehrenberg (1833), and Cabanis (1850) respectively. [End Dowsett 2003.06.06] Regarding the posited date of 1829, contra 1828, Dowsett's thinking as of 2003.06.07 is: [Begin part of Dowsett 2003.06.07] 'The two people to have used this reference for Centropus superciliosus gave different years: 1828 in W.L. Sclater's Syst. Av., and 1833 in Chapin's Bds of the Belgian Congo. 1829 is the date on the copy Steven's bookseller has on hand. That copy is clearly Decas secunda, whereas one notes the title of the NHM volume containing the full set of 20 plates is somewhat different. Had XI-XX been distributed in 1828 (as were the first 10 plates) then one might have thought people aware of the first 10 would know of the 2nd batch (which clearly most people didn't). So I think the choice is between a "certain" 1829 and a less so 1828, and I would go for the later date. What do others think? As for the different titles, the NHM copy being handwritten I don't think we can be sure it is what covered the plates when distributed, rather than one [that] someone took to be the composite title of the whole work.' [End Dowsett 2003.06.07] Steven Gregory is currently the primary investigator of this mystery and his explanations are: [Begin S.G. 2003.06.08.001] "Bob appears to have introduced you to this particular loop without explaining the background. Edward and I had a 'lively' discussion concerning the correct authorship of the new names introduced by the Symbolae Physicae. I argued that Zimmer was correct in stating that '...all of which must be credited to Ehrenberg although most of them are initialled "H. et E." in the text.' It turns out that all those initialled "E." alone are named 'hemprichi'. As well as the obvious fact of Hemprich's death in 1825 there are some more subtle clues such as: 1). The portion of the title page dealing with authorship translates as 'establishing publication at the expense [publico institutis sumptu] of F.G.Hemprich & C.G.Ehrenberg', but that it was 'magnificently and expensively published by the surviving [superstes] Dr. C.G.Ehrenberg'. And 2). The names are introduced exclusively as footnotes, supporting my contention that while Hemprich will have made extensive field notes later to be incorporated into the text, he was unlikely to have named species 'on the spot' (there were 34,000 zoological specimens collected!) and that the names, therefore, were inserted by Ehrenberg prior to publication, and cited Art. 50.1 and Recommendation 50A of the ICZN in support. This is a condensation of a far larger correspondence between just the two of us, the upshot of which is that we appear to agree to differ on this subject, he is happy with H. & E. in E., and I with E. in H. & E. !!! It was at this point, after a lot of digging around into this subject, that I found that W.L.Sclater cited 'fol. R, pl. xi,' for Centropus superciliosus, a plate which should not exist, and discovered a set of plates for sale by Antiquariaat Melchior purporting to be the Decas Secunda, plates XI-XX. I attach here the e-mail concerning the names of these plates, and will continue with an e-mail attaching scans of the two most interesting plates. Each plates has in top left the text: "Zoologica I. Aves" and in top right the plate number. On bottom right is the artist name (usually F. Burde), sometimes on bottom left the engravers name.

    Text to the plates:

    XI. Centropus Superciliofus adultis Arabia felix XII Centropus Superciliofus juvenis Arabia A. Pes et rostrum adulti. B. idem juvenis. XIII Fringilla 1 carduelis rufibarba 2 ------------ frenata 3 ------------ effrenata ex Arabia meridionalis XIV Vultur eulophus Ex Habesfinia XV Pterocles gulattus 1. mas 2. Femina ex Aegypti et Nubia desertis. 3. Femina e desertis Sinai ticis Arabiae. 4. Ova ejustdem e Nubia. I. Ova ptedoris senegalensis. II Ova Pteroclis bicintii XVI Pterocles coronatus 1. mas 2. Femina e Nubia II. Femina ex Arabia petraea A. Ovia Nubii XVII Ibis religiosa I.Habefsinica maris rubri, mas adulta II. Aethiopica nili, mas juvenis. III ovum. XVIII Ibis Hemprichii Ex Arabia XIX Falco Falco schistaceus 1. Mas 2. Femina 3. Ovum Ex insula Barcan Maris rubri XX Corvus Stridens Mas Libanon [End S.G. 2003.06.08.001] [Begin S.G. 2003.06.08.002] From available evidence so far a rough chronology would be: 1820-25 Expedition to North Africa and the Middle East 1825 Death of F.W.Hemprich in the field from malaria (no day or month found), return of C.G.Ehrenberg with 34,000 zoological specimens. 1828 Start of publication of Symbolae Physicae (1828-1845 et supra) Title Subtitle Text folios a and b (4 ll. or 8 pp). Plates I-X (birds) 1829 Plates XI-XX (birds) 1833 Text half-folios c-i, k-u, x-z and aa-gg (28 ll or 56 pp). The non-ornithological part of the work continued from this point. Although referred to variously as 'signatures' and 'folios', strictly speaking the first two parts (a and b) are superroyal folios, that is superroyal sheets folded once, and the latter parts (c-gg) superroyal half-folios, that is single leaves of the same size. I must say that it seems entirely plausible that texts were released between 1829 and 1833, and not 'all at once' as the bibliographers have it, but that this is probably now beyond any investigation unless a library somewhere has retained proof of receipt. Bob Dowsett has taken up the running in this area as he was the most enthused by my 'discovery'. As well as at the NHM, I believe a complete set resides in Berlin, although I'm unsure which institution as the internet description merely states 'Zoological Library', [End S.G. 2003.06.08.002] Hemprich died in the field during their labors, Zimmer in attributed all taxa to Ehrenberg. I have interpreted ICZN 50.1 (1999) to indicate that both authors should stand for the authority but may change this yet again. (2003.06.08).
    Syn.Accipitres.ed.2 A synopsis of the Accipitres... Swann, HK 1921-22 1vol. 8vo pp. I-VIII, 1-233 [See Syn.ListAccipitres of which this -differently titled- book is a second ed.] Part I. p.[1]-63,[64] Sep.8, 1921 Part II. p.[65]-123 Jan.3, 1922 Part III. p.[123]-178 Feb.16, 1922 Part IV. p.[179]-223, Addenda & Corrections, Illustrations.
    Syn.Am.WoodOwlsCiccaba Syn. Am. Wood Owls of Genus Ciccaba Kelso 1932
    Syn.Av. Synopsis Avium: nouveau manuel d'ornithologie par Alphonse Dubois... Dubois, Alphonse 1899-1904 2 vols. 4to Brussels Originally issued in 17 pts., 1899-1904 vol.1 1899-1902; vol.2 1902-1904
    Syn.BirdsAustr. A synopsis of the birds of Australia, and the adjacent islands. Gould 1837-38 London 4 pts. in 1 vol. 4to 73 col. pl. Pt. I 19 col. pl. Jan. 1837 Pt. II 18 col. pl. Apr. 1837 Pt. III 18 col. pl. Apr. 1838 Pt. IV 18 col. pl. Apr. 1838 [Note: CWR has Pitta vigorsii SBA pt.2 "Feb. 1838" ] Zimmer agrees with Wood in listing above; II == 1837.
    Syn.BirdsN.Am. A synopsis of the birds of North America. Audubon, JJ 1839 8vo pp.I-XII, 1-359+1 Edinburgh
    Syn.Cat.Brit.Birds Observations of the natural history of swallows,a ... to which is added a general catalogue of British birds. 6th ed. Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria 1817 London 8vo pp.xiv+97. front. 4 pl. append.
    Syn.Faun.Scand. Synopsis Faunae Scandinaviae complectens Animalia Sveciae Norvegiae= que hucusque detecta, a Gust. Joh. Billberg Billberg, Gustav John 1827(1828) 12vo Holmiae Notes: This rare work was discussed by CWR in a letter to Witmer Stone (1904.06.10). Richmond Indicates that after Sherborn had long insisted that there was no "bird part" he eventually found it in Alfred Newton's library. The first volume (containing material relating to mammals) was issued in 12mo in 1827. Though many copies of that volume are apparently dated 1828, implying the presence of two issues of it. The second volume (with the bird material) has two title pages, one with the author's name and a general title, but lacking a date, the second title page has a title and indicates the volume and part, but lacks the author's name. Billberg introduced a large number of generic names, many of which were senior to those already in wide use in the early 20th cent.
    Syn.ListAccipitres A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Swann, HK 1919-20 London 1 vol. pp. I-Vi, 1-164 A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Comprising described Species and Subspecies described up to 1919 with their Characters and Distribution Zimmer (p.618) lists the Publication dates as follows: Part I, pp.1-38, July 1919, APP 1 = [1] Wrapper Title (AMNH copy) A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Part I. (Sarcorhamphus to Accipiter) Comprising described Species and Subspecies described up to 1914, with their Characters and Distribution Part II, pp.39-74, 15-16(bis), 1 l. (add. and corrig.), November 7, 1919 Wrapper Title (AMNH copy) A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Part II. (Erythrotriorchis to Lophoaetus) Comprising described Species and Subspecies, with their Characters and Distribution Part III, pp.75-114, 1 l. (addenda etc.), January 20, 1920; Wrapper Title (AMNH copy) A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Part III. (Herpetotheres to Pernis) Comprising described Species and Subspecies, with their Characters and Distribution Part IV, pp.115-164, I-VI, March 31, 1920 Wrapper Title (AMNH copy) A synoptical list of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) Part IV. (Falconinae and Pandiones) Comprising described Species and Subspecies, with their Characters and Distribution
  • The Corrigenda accompanying Part III includes this text:
    		... 200c. Delete article and read:
    			Smaller and lacking 2 long crest feathers.
    			Spizaetos nipalensis fokiensis W. Sclat. S. China,
    			Bull. B.O.C., xl., p.37 (1919). [Fokien (breeding)
    			Prov., type in B.M.]
    			[Inserted by error in pt. 2 without ref. to publication,
    				owing to delay in pub. of Bull. B.O.C.]
    		[ A second ed. published as Syn.Accip. (v.s.) ]
    Syn.Mamm. Synopsis mammalium. Fischer, Johann Baptist 1829 21cm Stuttgart
    Syn.Vert.Syst. Synopsis vertebratorum systematis societati linnaeana exhibiti die septema, Nov. 1837. Bonaparte, Charles Lucien Jules Laurent 1837 8vo pp.30
    Syst.Av. Systema Avium Wagler, JG 1827 8vo pp.411, addend. (unfinished) Stutt. & Tubingen 8vo pp.408, addend. (unfinished) Stutt. & Tubingen pagination totals vary in different listings. Ardea Columba Corvus Crypturus Gracula Leptopteryx Pastor Picus Pteroglossus Ramphastos Spelectos ## sub section list not complete Murray Bruce sends this description of the structure and arrangement of the work.(slightly edited).
    "I have a copy of Wagler's 'Systema Avium' in front of me [...]. Wagler's work is unpaginated and consists of a collection of reviews of various genera. It is subtitled 'Pars Prima', but with Wagler's early death, no more were published.

    I think Peters 6:79 shows the conventional way to cite names based on the numbered sequence of species within an individual review. The genera are not numbered so you have to search for the cited species. My copy (as with others I've seen and as Richmond implies) has handwritten page numbers, starting from the beginning of the reviews.


    Sherborn's solution for citing names is a logical one, but requires a search for the cited species Also, he is right to call it 'I', even if no more were published. I think the best way to cite Wagler's names is to follow what Peters does, but to also add a bracketed page number at the end. This is easier to follow than Sherborn and combines Richmond's simple solution with the reality of how Wagler constructed his text."

    Syst.Av.Aethiop. Systema avium Aethiopicarum; a systematic list of the birds of the Ethiopian region. Sclater, William Lutley London Pt. I pp. 4+304 1924 Pt. II pp. 305-922 1930
    Syst.Av.Austr. Systema avium Australasianarum; a systematic list of the birds of the Austrlasian region. Prepared in conjunction with Special Committees of the British and American Ornithologsts' Unions. Mathews, GM 1927-30 London 8vo x+426
    Syst.BaierischenZool. System der Baierischen Zoologie, &c. Bd.L. Die Saugethiere und Vogel Bairens, &c. Koch, Carl Ludwig 1816 8 vo Nurnberg pp. xlvii, 435 13 pls.
    Syst.Nat. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Linneai, Caroli (Carl Linnaeus) Editio decima, Reformata Tomus I 1758 8vo pp. 4+824 [ Note 1: I remain interested and confused by the orthography of the type locality representations with regard to the use of italics. In many instances italics seem to be used to describe habitats, as opposed to locations. e.g. p.205 under Gecko: "Habitat in Indiis, frequens etiam in domibus." (trans. "Lives in the Indies, often even in homes.") However, contrast p.205 under Stincus: "Habitat in montis Lybiae, AEgypti, Arabia petreae." (trans. by Kitchell and Dundee, "A trilogy on the Herpetology of Linnaeus's Systema Natura X" 1994 p.14 "Lives in mountainous areas of Libya, Egypt and Arabia Petraea." With a footnote (27, p.37 stating: 'Not "Rocky Arabia" as in the translation of the 13th ed. of Syst. Nat. by Wm. Turton, but rather the area of Arabia surrounding Petra. The term is an ancient one.' This appears to me that they are suggesting that the italicization of "petreae" is a typographic error? I do not find a discussion from them regarding the meaning and implication, if any, of the italics. In classical Latin petra ~ae f. A rock, boulder, or crag. Petra ~ae f. The name of several towns, esp. the chief town of Arabia Petraea. I expect that Kitchell and Dundee may not have attended to the implications of the italiciziation, and lower case used by Linnaeus. Alternatively the lower case and italicization may not have been Linnaeus' intent. Occam's razor would, I believe, favor "Rocky Arabia" over "Arabia Petraea". However, the meaning and consistency of the italiciziation is not clear. In the instances of Testudo carinata p.198 and Testudo serpentina p.199 The text reads: "Habitat in Calidis regionibus." And the only reasonable interpretation is that given by Kitchell and Dundee: "Lives in warm regions." "Calidis" does not seem to be any PLACE, so by my theory it would seem it should be italicized, and it is not. Note 2: The date of Systema Naturae is fixed by the ICZN as 1 January, 1758. This may not be far from the actual date it was published. In his 'Index to the "Systema Naturæ" of Linnaeus.' 1899. C. Davies Sherborn indicates (p.vi): "In a letter to Mr. John Ellis, dated 8 Feb., 1758, Linnæus says the first vol. of the 10th ed. of the Systema was just published. We can therefore safely date Zoological Nomenclature from 1st Jan., 1758." ] Systema Naturae, &c. Linneai, Caroli Editio duodecima reformata Tomus I (= Regne animale) 1766 8vo pp. 1327+36 Tom. I pt. 1 pp.1-532 1766 Tom. I pt. 2 pp.532- 1327 1767 Tom. I pt. 2 Appendix and Errata pp.246-248 1767 Systema Naturae, &c. Linneai, Caroli Editio decima tertia, aucta reformata, cura J.F. Gmelin 3 Tom. [in 7] 1788-93 8vo Lipsiae
  • The use of the dagger (†) is of interest. I include the explanations from Martin Spies, David Nicolson and Dick Petit concerning this mark.
    1. Martin Spies (2003.04.18):
      	"With this symbol ... Linné denotes that he has not seen the animal 
      	in question neither in vivo nor in any museum (but instead has 
      	named it only after an older description or figure by another author)." 
      	The above is my translation from the German out of: 
      	Nordstroem, F. 1943. 
      	Zur Deutung einiger Linnéscher und Clerckscher Schmetterlingsarten. 
      	II. Was ist Phalaena Geometra amata L.? 
      	Pp. 14-19 in: Malaise, R. (ed.): Folium entomologicum. Festschrift 
      	z. 60. Geburtstage von Felix Bryk. - Lund. 
      	At least in the entomological literature, many authors after Linné 
      	- for example the founders of dipterology, Meigen, Wiedemann, etc. - 
      	have followed the 'master' all the way down to typographical detail, 
      	and also used the dagger symbol when discussing species they 
      	knew only from literature references.
    2. David Nicolson (2003.04.18)[from Dan Nicloson]:
      ... It appears that Linnaeus used the dagger for different things, 
      according to which publication was involved!
      Botanists rarely have occasion to use the Systema since we have his 
      Species Plantarum (2 editions) as well as his Genera Plantarum and Linnaeus rarely
      (but sometimes) used the Systema for new plants species.
      • The dagger in his Species Plantarum indicates an imperfectly known species or some doubt or obscurity.
      • The dagger in his Genera Plantarum indicates that he knew the genus only from herbarium material.
      The same problem (different meaning) exists for the asterisk. [*]
      • In the Species Plantarum it indicates that a good description is to be found at the place cited.
      • In the Genera Plantarum an asterisk indicates that Linnaeus had studied living material.
      Hence, in the Genera Plantarum, the absence of a dagger and an asterisk indicates that Linnaeus only knew it from the literature.

      This info is to be found in William T. Stearn's magisterial introduction the 1957 Ray Society's facsimile edition of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum in his Chapter 18 "Signs Used by Linnaeus" (pp.162-163).

    3. Dick Petit (2004.01.09)
      It is explained by Linnaeus himself on page 613 of the
      10th edition of the Systema.  In addition to what it represents, his reason
      for using it was to call attention to unseen species "so naturalists may be
      stimulated to examine them more closely."
      Dance gives a translation taken from Heller, 1964 Huntia 1:33-70 
      (which I [RP] have not seen).  
      He is quoted by Dance as translating Linnaeus' note as:
      "We have everywhere used the sign of the Cross to mark animals which we have not seen either in the living state or preserved in Museums, that so Naturalists may be stimulated to examine them more closely."
    4. Linneaus' text on p.613 of the 10th appears as follows:
      (†) Signo Crucis ubique notavimus animalia nobis nec viva, nec in muſeis aſſervata
      viſa, ut Naturæ conſulti ad ea attentius examinanda incitentur.
    Syst.Orn.Westafr. System der Ornithologie Westafrica's Hartlaub 1857 Bremen 8vo pp.lxvi+280
    Syst.Darst.Fortpf.Vog.Eur. Systematische Darstellung der Fortpflanzung der Vogel Europa's mit Abbildung der Eier / Im Vereine mit L. Brehm ... G. A. W. Thienemann ; herausgegeben von F. A. L. Thienemann. Publisher info: Leipzig, 1825-38. Physical descrip: 5 Abth. [in 1 v.] : illust. col. 4°.
    Syst.Pterylogr. System der Pterylographie von C. L. Nitzsch. Nach seinen handschriftlich aufbewahrten Untersuchungen verfasst von H. Burmeister, &c. Nitzsch, Christian Ludwig [1782-1837] 1840 pp.xii, 228
    Systemat.Biodiv. Systematics and Biodiversity
    Systemat.Cat.Spec.Indig.Mamm.Birds.Brit.Mus. Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Inigenous Mammmalia and Birds that are preserved in the British Museum: with their localities and authorities. &c. Leach, William Elford 1816 London p.42+2 Published not before September of 1816. As noted by CWR in a letter to Witmer Stone (1930.10.08), the Introductory note is signed "August 30, 1816". [APP: a Friday].
    Systemat.-Sum.Uebers.Zool.Entd. Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika. Nebst zwey andern zoologishce Abhandlungen. Meyer,Friedrich Albrecht Anton [1768-1795] 1793 Leipzig pp.178[6]. 8vo
    Systemat.Uebers.Thier.Brasil. Systematische Uebersicht der Thiere Brasiliens welche warhend einer Reise durch die Provinzen von Rio de Janiero und Minas Geraes gesammelt oder beobacht wurden. Burmeister, Hermann 1856 Berlin Erster Theil. Saügetheire 1854. Zweiter Theil. Vögle 1856. [Note APP: Smithsonian copy with pencilled note: "(Appeared with 3rd Heft of Th. II.)" Copy is from the Richmond collection, and pencilled note appears to be Richmond's] Erster heft: 1855. pp.1-160 Zweiter heft: 1855. pp.161-320 Dritter heft: 1856. pp.321-526 [Note APP: Smithsonian copy, cover missing. Inserted sheet with pencil note (appears to be CWR) "Zweiter Theil [Dritter Heft. 1856].] Dritter Theil. Vögle 1856
    Systemat.Uebers.Vog.N.-O.-Afr. Systematische Uebersicht der Vogel Nord-Ost-Afrika's Forsetzung der neuen Wirbelthiere, zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehorig.
    Systemat.Verz.Nat.Samml.Ges.Mus. Systematisches Verzeichniss der naturhistorichen Sammlung der Gesellschaft Museum. Erste Abtheilung. Vogel. [Hartlaub] Bremen 1844 4to
    Systemat.Verz.Vog. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Vogel. Meisner, Carl Friedrich August 1804 Bern. 8vo pp. xxvii,327 col.pl.
    Comments&Suggestions to Data Steward
    Alan P. Peterson, M.D.
    POB 1999
    Walla Walla, WA 99362-0999

    Last updated 2017.12.27